(Enter a number and I'll tell you everything you wanted to know about it but were afraid to ask.)
The composite integer n is a Carmichael number if bn-1 = 1 (mod n) for every integer b
which is relatively prime with n.
Carmichael numbers behave like prime numbers with respect to the most useful primality test, that is they pretend to be prime.
A positive integer greater than 1 that is not prime is called composite.
Composite numbers are opposite to prime numbers.
The number n is deficient if the sum of all its positive divisors except itself is less than n.
Compare with perfect and abundant numbers.
The number n is evil if it has an even number of 1's in its binary expansion.
Guess what odious numbers are.
A number is odd if it is not divisible by 2.
Numbers that are not odd are even. Compare with another pair -- evil and odious numbers.
A number is said to be square-free if its prime decomposition contains no repeated factors.
If you start with n points on a line, then draw n-1 points above and between, then n-2 above and between them, and so on, you will get a triangle of points. The number of points in this triangle is a triangle number.
Compare to square, pentagonal and tetrahedral numbers.