(Enter a number and I'll tell you everything you wanted to know about it but were afraid to ask.)
A positive integer greater than 1 that is not prime is called composite.
Composite numbers are opposite to prime numbers.
The number n is deficient if the sum of all its positive divisors except itself is less than n.
Compare with perfect and abundant numbers.
A number is even if it is divisible by 2.
Numbers that are not even are odd. Compare with another pair -- evil and odious numbers.
The number n is evil if it has an even number of 1's in its binary expansion.
Guess what odious numbers are.
One can take the sum of the squares of the digits of a number. Those numbers are happy for which iterating this operation eventually leads to 1.
A number is said to be square-free if its prime decomposition contains no repeated factors.
The untouchable numbers are those that are not the sum of the proper divisors of any number.