(Enter a number and I'll tell you everything you wanted to know about it but were afraid to ask.)
The number n is abundant if the sum of all its positive divisors except itself is more than n.
They are abundant above perfection, not to mention deficiency. See perfect and deficient numbers.
The number n is called an apocalyptic power if 2n contains the consecutive digits 666 (in decimal).
A positive integer greater than 1 that is not prime is called composite.
Composite numbers are opposite to prime numbers.
The number n is evil if it has an even number of 1's in its binary expansion.
Guess what odious numbers are.
A number is odd if it is not divisible by 2.
Numbers that are not odd are even. Compare with another pair -- evil and odious numbers.
If you start with n points on a line, then draw n-1 points above and between, then n-2 above and between them, and so on, you will get a triangle of points. The number of points in this triangle is a triangle number.
Compare to square, pentagonal and tetrahedral numbers.