(Enter a number and I'll tell you everything you wanted to know about it but were afraid to ask.)
The number n is deficient if the sum of all its positive divisors except itself is less than n.
Compare with perfect and abundant numbers.
The n-th lazy caterer number is the maximum number of pieces a (circular) pizza can be cut into with n (straight-line) cuts.
Unlike the situation with cake, everybody gets the toppings.
A number is odd if it is not divisible by 2.
Numbers that are not odd are even. Compare with another pair -- evil and odious numbers.
The number n is odious if it has an odd number of 1's in its binary expansion.
Guess what evil numbers are.
A prime is a positive integer greater than 1 that is divisible by no positive integers other than 1 and itself.
Prime numbers are opposite to composite numbers.
A number is said to be square-free if its prime decomposition contains no repeated factors.